The approximately 5,000 books in the Archives include the closed stacks of the Library and an extensive collection of Texana and regional literature.

Some manuscript collections of note are the papers of Texas Ranger Roy W. Aldrich; Texas legislators Benjamin F. Berkeley, E. E. Townsend and Gene Hendryx; and border historians Harry Warren and Jodie P. Harris.

The photography collections include the work of photojournalists W. D. Smithers and Charles Hunter, nature photographer Peter Koch and studio photographers Mr. and Mrs. Carl Thain and Frank Duncan.

The Archives has an ongoing program to collect oral histories from long-time residents of the area. Listening cassettes are available to researchers in the reading room.